Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like Chinait seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meruthe only one inhabited with humans identical to us. The only question was how much of it was taken up by India.
Many institutions were set up to settle legal disputes, and Roman law appeared in every town governed by the empire. The influence of Roman law would long outlast the empire. The basis of Roman society, as proclaimed by the laws, was the family, headed by a pater familias, who had power over his dependents.
However, Roman women were quite free and had greater control over their wealth and property than preceding states in the Mediterranean.
One key difference from the Han was an extensive institution of slavery, in which slave laborers were used in large numbers to produce goods . Roman society was a relatively hierarchical society.
Each social group had well-defined roles. Birth was an important indicator of social position. While the elite could enjoy a relatively wealthy life and could expect to become officials and hold high positions, lower classes could not expect such luxury.
In trials, the Roman elite was better privileged; they received preferential treatment from imperial courts.
They could not be subject to cruel punishments. For the lower classes, the fastest way to advance socially was the army or trade . Han society was divided into a number of classes, all played a role within this complex society. The basis of this society were free peasants, who formed the base of the tax revenues of the state and who produced most of the agricultural crop.
These men also helped link the central government with local society.
Merchants were also a class, but they were subject to controls by the state and often forced to partner with the state, who also took monopolies in salt, steel and wine, further restricting merchants.
At the bottom of society were convicts, beggars and slaves, who formed a small part of the population. For wealthy families, life was good; they displayed their wealth in lavish meals, and lived in large homes in which women lived in the inner quarters.
Poorer farmers and tenant laborers worked on their fields. Women in poorer families did not have such luxury and often worked in the fields with their husbands or acted as entertainers. Silk clothes were abundant and worn by all classes. Music and entertainment were separated from rituals, with the exception of funeral rites which were taken very seriously.
The legalist thought believed at least in theory that everyone was equal under the emperor. Therefore, punishments for the same crimes were the same in writing, though this was not always carried out. Social mobility was also relatively great, especially in the military.
Confucianism also asserted that "A man, even though he may be poor, can by his acts be a gentleman. A rich nobleman, even though he may been born well, can by his acts be called shameful. This thought had the effect of weakening the nobility and strengthening the emperor.
The influence of the nobility was also weaker as the new merchant class asserted its presence and wealth energetically; the Han abolished hereditary positions. In theory, everyone could become an official . Hereditary positions came back later, as evidenced by the fact that the founder of the Tang dynasty was the hereditary duke of Tang, and regional governors were allowed to pass titles on.
Religion The religion in ancient Rome was much more extensive than the Han religion. While the Roman rulers organized a state religion  and the emperors took a big part in it, the Han emperors were more secular; they acknowledged the existence of the gods and took part in ceremonies, but were for the most part unconcerned with them .
By embracing Confucian political ideas, the Han established a government that created a careful balance that both allowed emperors to exercise their own power and that empowered officials freedom to carry out their duties, and even to criticize government and impeach corrupt superiors.
Culture A bronze horse from the Han dynasty In both empires, learning and the arts were patronized by both the state and landowners. Wealthy men often bankrolled artists. Many works of art and construction were done during this period .
Every significant Roman town had public entertainment facilities such as theaters and amphitheaters, the most famous of which was the Colosseum in Rome. The Colosseum was a state-of-the-art entertainment facility, used most infamously for gladiatorial games in which well-trained men fought, sometimes to the death, for the enjoyment of huge crowds of Roman citizens.The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor torosgazete.com Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over its Western provinces; modern historians.
What do the X's mean? The X's just indicate the ones I either have not watched or I have watched but have no review or a puny review. It's just a way to keep me from buying two copies of the same movie. The Han Dynasty torosgazete.com Roman Empire The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty of China had many similarities and differences.
Many of these similarities and differences were political, social, and economical. Some of the similarities included the resemblances of political figures, the role of women, and the parallels in each empire’s trade.
China and Rome: a comparison of two empires. home. Cultural comparison. Silk Road. Book. Essays.
The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty of imperial China coexisted with Parthia and Kushan, spanning the mid-latitude of Eurasia and northern Africa. Mahapadma Nanda became King of Magadha and created what looks like the first "Empire" in Northern India. While Indian history begins with some confidence with the Mauyras, the Nandas are now emerging into the light of history with a little more distinctness.
This period lays the foundation for much of civilization as we know it today. The classical Greeks lay the cultural foundation for Western civilization.
The Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus unify much of the Middle East and Egypt. Alexander the Great unifies Greece with Persia.
Later, the Roman Empire dominates the Mediterranean and Europe.