Employment[ edit ] The ADA has been criticized on the grounds that it decreases the employment rate for people with disabilities  and raises the cost of doing business for employers, in large part due to the additional legal risks, which employers avoid by quietly avoiding hiring people with disabilities. Some researchers believe that the law has been ineffectual. The ADA allows private plaintiffs to receive only injunctive relief a court order requiring the public accommodation to remedy violations of the accessibility regulations and attorneys' fees, and does not provide monetary rewards to private plaintiffs who sue non-compliant businesses. Unless a state law, such as the California Unruh Civil Rights Act provides for monetary damages to private plaintiffs, persons with disabilities do not obtain direct financial benefits from suing businesses that violate the ADA.
The purpose of this part is to implement the transportation and related provisions of titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of As used in this part: Accessible means, with respect to vehicles and facilities, complying with the accessibility requirements of parts 37 and 38 of this title.
Administrator means Administrator of the Federal Transit Administration, or his or her designee. Alteration means a change to an existing facility, including, but not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement in structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height [[Page ]] partitions.
Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, asbestos removal, or changes to mechanical or electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility. Automated guideway transit system or AGT means a fixed-guideway transit system which operates with automated driverless individual vehicles or multi-car trains.
Service may be on a fixed schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button. Auxiliary aids and services includes: Qualified interpreters, notetakers, transcription services, written materials, telephone headset amplifiers, assistive listening devices, assistive listening systems, telephones compatible with hearing aids, closed caption decoders, closed and open captioning, text telephones also known as telephone devices for the deaf, or TDDsvideotext displays, or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments; Qualified readers, taped texts, audio recordings, Brailled materials, large print materials, or other effective methods of making visually delivered materials available to individuals with visual impairments; Acquisition or modification of equipment or devices; or Other similar services or actions.
Bus means any of several types of self-propelled vehicles, generally rubber-tired, intended for use on city streets, highways, and busways, including but not limited to minibuses, forty- and thirty-foot buses, articulated buses, double-deck buses, and electrically powered trolley buses, used by public entities to provide designated public transportation service and by private entities to provide transportation service including, but not limited to, specified public transportation services.
Self-propelled, rubber-tired vehicles designed to look like antique or vintage trolleys are considered buses. Commerce means travel, trade, transportation, or communication among the several states, between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any state, or between points in the same state but through another state or foreign country.
Commuter authority means any state, local, regional authority, corporation, or other entity established for purposes of providing commuter rail transportation including, but not necessarily limited to, the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Connecticut Department of Transportation, the Maryland Department of Transportation, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, the New Jersey Transit Corporation, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, and any successor agencies and any entity created by one or more such agencies for the purposes of operating, or contracting for the operation of, commuter rail transportation.
Commuter bus service means fixed route bus service, characterized by service predominantly in one direction during peak periods, limited stops, use of multi-ride tickets, and routes of extended length, usually between the central business district and outlying suburbs.
Commuter bus service may also include other service, characterized by a limited route structure, limited stops, and a coordinated relationship to another mode of transportation.
Commuter rail car means a rail passenger car obtained by a commuter authority for use in commuter rail transportation. Commuter rail transportation means short-haul rail passenger service operating in metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fare, multiple ride, and commutation tickets and by morning and evening peak period operations.
This term does not include light or rapid rail transportation. Demand responsive system means any system of transporting individuals, including the provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of transportation service by private entities, including but not limited to specified public transportation service, which is not a fixed route system.
Disability means, with respect to an individual, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an impairment.
The phrase physical or mental impairment means-- Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: The phrase has a record of such an impairment means has a history of, or has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
The phrase is regarded as having such an impairment means-- Has a physical or mental impairment that does not substantially limit major life activities, but which is treated by a public or private entity as constituting such a limitation; Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity only as a result of the attitudes of others toward such an impairment; or Has none of the impairments defined in paragraph 1 of this definition but is treated by a public or private entity as having such an impairment.
The term disability does not include-- Transve stism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders; Compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania; Psychoactive substance abuse disorders resulting from the current illegal use of drugs.
Facility means all or any portion of buildings, structures, sites, complexes, equipment, roads, walks, passageways, parking lots, or other real or personal property, including the site where the building, property, structure, or equipment is located.
Fixed route system means a system of transporting individuals other than by aircraftincluding the provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of transportation service by private entities, including, but not limited to, specified public transportation service, on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule.
High speed rail means a rail service having the characteristics of intercity rail service which operates primarily on a dedicated guideway or track not used, for the most part, by freight, including, but not limited to, trains on welded rail, magnetically levitated maglev vehicles on a special guideway, or other advanced technology vehicles, designed to travel at speeds in [[Page ]] excess of those possible on other types of railroads.
Individual with a disability means a person who has a disability, but does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a public or private entity acts on the basis of such use.
Intercity rail passenger car means a rail car, intended for use by revenue passengers, obtained by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation Amtrak for use in intercity rail transportation.
Intercity rail transportation means transportation provided by Amtrak. Light rail means a streetcar-type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights of way, or exclusive rights of way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level boarding.The U.S.
Department of Education took a critical step today toward addressing widespread disparities in the treatment of students of color with disabilities, proposing a new rule to improve equity in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The nation's special education law, IDEA, aims to ensure fairness in the identification, placement, and discipline of students with.
TITLE I - EMPLOYMENT § DEFINITIONS. As used in this title: §(1) Commission. The term "Commission" means the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission established by section of the Civil Rights Act of (42 U.S.C.
e-4). SUBJECT: Enforcement Guidance on the Consideration of Arrest and Conviction Records in Employment Decisions Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of , as amended, 42 U.S.C. § e et seq.; PURPOSE: The purpose of this Enforcement Guidance is to consolidate and update the U.S.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's guidance documents regarding the use of arrest or conviction . [Code of Federal Regulations][Title 49, Volume 1][Revised as of October 1, ]From the U.S.
Government Printing Office via GPO Access[CITE: 49CFR37][Page ]TITLE TRANSPORTATIONSubtitle A--Office of the Secretary of TransportationPART 37_TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA)Table of ContentsSubpart A_General.
The Civil Rights Act of and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission En Español.
In the s, Americans who knew only the potential of "equal protection of the laws" expected the President, the Congress, and the courts to fulfill the promise of the 14th Amendment. Vol. 46, No.
INTERRELATIONSHIP OF IDEA AND SECTION 1. What is the jurisdiction of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR), the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and state departments of education/instruction regarding educational services to students with disabilities? The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Largely as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April , when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after. The U.S. Department of Education took a critical step today toward addressing widespread disparities in the treatment of students of color with disabilities, proposing a new rule to improve equity in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The nation's special education law, IDEA, aims to ensure fairness in the identification, placement, and discipline of students with.
2, Summer ARTICLES. Trafficking, Prostitution, and Inequality Catharine A. MacKinnon. A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle over the Soul of .