Indian rock-cut architecture The famous carved door of Lomas Rishione of the Barabar Cavesdated to approximately BCE, displaying the first known Maurya reliefs.
Origins[ edit ] Classical architecture is derived from the architecture of ancient Ancient indian architecture essay and ancient Rome. With the collapse of the western part of the Roman empirethe architectural traditions of the Roman empire ceased to be practised in large parts of western Europe.
In the Byzantine Empirethe ancient ways of building lived on but relatively soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style. The gatehouse of Lorsch Abbey c.
In general, therefore, they are not considered classical archerchitectural styles in a strict sense. Lorsch Abbey gatehouse Germanyc. During the Italian renaissance and with the demise of Gothic style, major efforts were made by architects such as Leon Battista AlbertiSebastiano Serlio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola to revive the language of architecture of first and foremost ancient Rome.
This was done in part through the study of the ancient Roman architectural treatise De architectura by Vitruviusand to some extent by studying the actual remains of ancient Roman buildings in Italy.
In a building like the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschione of the very earliest Renaissance buildings built —45the treatment of the columns for example has no direct antecedent in ancient Roman architecture.
The elements of classical architecture have been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however. For example, Baroque or Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural Ancient indian architecture essay very much in their own right.
During these periods, architectural theory still referred to classical ideas but rather less sincerely than during the Renaissance. The competing neo-Gothic style however rose to popularity during the early s, and the later part the 19th century was characterised by a variety of styles, some of them only slightly or not at all related to classicism such as Art Nouveauand eclecticism.
Although classical architecture continued to play an important role and for periods of time at least locally dominated the architectural scene, as exemplified by the " Nordic Classicism " during the s, classical architecture in its stricter form never regained its former dominance.
With the advent of Modernism during the early 20th century, classical architecture arguably almost completely ceased to be practised.
That is to say, that classical antiquity at least in theory was considered the prime source of inspiration for architectural endeavours in the West for much of Modern history.
Even so, because of liberal, personal or theoretically diverse interpretations of the antique heritage, classicism covers a broad range of styles, some even so to speak cross-referencing, like Neo-Palladian architecturewhich draws its inspiration from the works of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio — who himself drew inspiration from ancient Roman architecture.
Therefore, a simple delineation of the scope of classical architecture is difficult to make. Petrification[ edit ] In the grammar of architecture, the word petrification is often used when discussing the development of sacred structures, such as temples, mainly with reference to developments in the Greek world.
During the Archaic and early Classical periods about the 6th and early 5th centuries BCthe architectural forms of the earliest temples had solidified and the Doric emerged as the predominant element.
A widely accepted theory in classical studies is that the earliest temple structures were of wood and the great forms, or elements of architectural style, were codified and rather permanent by the time we see the Archaic emergent and established.
It was during this period, at different times and places in the Greek world, that the use of dressed and polished stone replaced the wood in these early temples, but the forms and shapes of the old wooden styles were retained, just as if the wooden structures had turned to stone, thus the designation petrification  or sometimes "petrified carpentry"  for this process.
This careful preservation of the primitive wooden appearance in the stone fabric of the newer buildings was scrupulously observed and this suggests that it may have been dictated by religion rather than aesthetics, although the exact reasons are now lost in the mists of antiquity.
And not everyone within the great reach of Mediterranean civilization made this transition. The Etruscans in Italy were, from their earliest period, greatly influenced by their contact with Greek culture and religion, but they retained their wooden temples with some exceptions until their culture was completely absorbed into the Roman world, with the great wooden Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol in Rome itself being a good example.
Nor was it the lack of knowledge of stone working on their part that prevented them from making the transition from timber to dressed stone.Evolution.
In ancient India, women were attributed a much higher status than they have in today’s society. They were not confined to the boundaries of the home and were allowed much more freedom in terms of life choices. Hindu architecture evolved over the centuries from simple rock-cut cave shrines to massive and ornate temples which spread across the Indian sub-continent and beyond, forming a canonical style which is still adhered to today in modern Hindu temples across the globe.
Rosicrucian and Masonic Origins. by Manly P. Hall From Lectures on Ancient Philosophy—An Introduction to the Study and Application of Rational Procedure: The Hall Publishing Company, Los Angeles, First Edition , pp In ancient India, temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions.
The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities.
The fifth Platonic Solid, the dodecahedron, Plato obscurely remarks, " the god used for arranging the constellations on the whole heaven" (Timaeus 55).
That remark led the great astronomer Johannes Kepler () into an absurd series of speculations about how the orbits of the planets, whose nature for the first time he had accurately understood, corresponded to the Platonic solids.
India is a country in South Asia whose name comes from the Indus River. The name `Bharata’ is used as a designation for the country in their constitution referencing the ancient mythological emperor, Bharata, whose story is told, in part, in the Indian epic Mahabharata.
According to the writings.