How These four points interrelate, but let's start with the most important:
All three explanations describe exactly the same theory — the same function from n to h, over the entire domain of possible values of n. Thus we could prefer A or B over C only for reasons other than the theory itself.
We might find that A or B gave us a better understanding of the problem. A and B are certainly more useful than C for figuring out what happens if Congress exercises its power to add an additional associate justice.
Theory A might be most helpful in developing a theory of handshakes at the end of a hockey game when each player shakes hands with players on the opposing team or in proving that the number of people who shook an odd number of hands at the MIT Symposium is even.
How successful are statistical language models? Chomsky said words to the effect that statistical language models have had some limited success in some application areas.
Their operation cannot be described by a simple function.
Some commercial systems use a hybrid of trained and rule-based approaches. Of the language pairs covered by machine translation systems, a statistical system is by far the best for every pair except Japanese-English, where the top statistical system is roughly equal to the top hybrid system.
All systems use at least some statistical techniques.
The majority of current systems are statistical, although we should mention the system of Haghighi and Kleinwhich can be described as a hybrid system that is mostly rule-based rather than trained, and performs on par with top statistical systems.
Part of speech tagging: Most current systems are statistical. The Brill tagger stands out as a successful hybrid system: There are many parsing systems, using multiple approaches. Almost all of the most successful are statistical, and the majority are probabilistic with a substantial minority of deterministic parsers.
Clearly, it is inaccurate to say that statistical models and probabilistic models have achieved limited success; rather they have achieved a dominant although not exclusive position.
Another measure of success is the degree to which an idea captures a community of researchers. As Steve Abney wrote in"In the space of the last ten years, statistical methods have gone from being virtually unknown in computational linguistics to being a fundamental given.
But I made the switch: And I saw everyone around me making the same switch.
We all saw the limitations of the old tools, and the benefits of the new. This section has shown that one reason why the vast majority of researchers in computational linguistics use statistical models is an engineering reason: For the remainder of this essay we will concentrate on scientific reasons: Is there anything like [the statistical model] notion of success in the history of science?
A dictionary definition of science is "the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment," which stresses accurate modeling over insight, but it seems to me that both notions have always coexisted as part of doing science.
To test that, I consulted the epitome of doing science, namely Science. I looked at the current issue and chose a title and abstract at random: It certainly seems that this article is much more focused on "accurately modeling the world" than on "providing insight.July (This essay is derived from a talk at Oscon ) A few months ago I finished a new book, and in reviews I keep noticing words like "provocative'' and "controversial.''To say nothing of "idiotic.'' I didn't mean to make the book controversial.
Compare and Contrast Two Leaders INTRODUCTION This essay will compare and contrast the characteristics of two of America’s female leaders. In analysing the effectiveness of their leadership, this essay will evaluate the traits, personality, history, experience, and values of each leader.
The ability to bring people together around shared beliefs and a common organisational purpose to create. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast two leaders: Steve Job who was a business leader for Apple Company and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi who was a political and spiritual leader of India whose main focus was on “non-violence”.
On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning At the Brains, Minds, and Machines symposium held during MIT's th birthday party, Technology Review reports that Prof. Noam Chomsky.
Two Ways. There are two ways for people to get along in this world. One looks like this. And the other looks like this. In the first, one person is above the other, with communication going from the upper to the lower.
A practical explanation for the futility of especially heavy weapons is that they are slow. In physics terms, doubling the mass of a weapon can provide twice the strike energy, but doubling the velocity of a strike provides four times the energy.