February 9, at
In this blog I present, in an informal way, core ideas in philosophy and their application to current events and everyday life.
For critical thinking lessons and resources, please check out my free online course reasoningforthedigitalage. Descartes left us with a problem: Since we can never "get out of our own heads," how do we know that our ideas and perceptions of the external world of objects resemble what those external objects that cause our perceptions are actually like.
This general model of perception is called representationalism. Beginning with the metaphysical, it goes something like this condensed from pages: Something has to cause them.
The most likely candidate is "stuff out there" in the world he calls it "substance". Substances have properties like color, shape, taste, smell, spacio-temporal location, solidity, etc These properties can be divided into 2 categories: We can look at these two types properties as inherent and dependent properties from the metaphysical point of view.
Consider the properites of color, extension, and shape to illustrate the difference. Color is a secondary property i. That is, you cannot have color just randomly floating around in the air. If must exist in something extended and with shape not to mention spacio-temporal location.
This is one argument for the dependence of color. The wavelengths that are reflected are the ones that enter our retina and initiate a causal chain terminating with our perception of a color "in the theatre of our mind.
So, lets quickly recap the metaphysical argument. Lets call them primary qualities. Lets call them secondary qualities.
These names are a good description of the qualities. The external objects that cause our perceptions have primary and secondary properties. Now, lets put on our epistemologist hats.While many parents assume that bullying is a problem confined to middle school or high school, it can begin as early a kindergarten and become firmly seeded in a school culture by the second or third grade.
George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was one of the great philosophers of the early modern period.
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He was a brilliant critic of his predecessors, particularly Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke. George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was one of the great philosophers of the early modern period.
He was a brilliant critic of his predecessors, particularly Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke. He was a talented metaphysician famous for defending idealism, that is, the view that reality consists exclusively of minds and their ideas.
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Berkeley’s Arguments on Realism and Idealism 2 unless the negation of the property in question is something for which we also have an exemplar particular (this is what is meant by the positivity of the comparison), and nor may we use only a part of the properties which are.