Why is the review of related literature needed in a research paper?
We used a comparative approach to characterize the energetics of dinosaurs and other extinct taxa. We examined the empirical and theoretical relationship between growth and resting metabolic rate, using a broad database of major vertebrate clades 9and used our results to examine the energetics of Mesozoic dinosaurs.
From empirical studies, we constructed ontogenetic growth curves and determined a maximum rate of growth for each species.
The Mesozoic Era started million years ago mya and ended with the 5th mass extinction 66 mya. Data for dinosaur growth were taken from published reports that provided a minimum of five measurements of size and age.
All metabolic rates were converted to watts W. Where multiple metabolic or maximum growth rates for a species were recorded, the geometric mean was determined.
Dinosaurs are well represented both temporally late Triassic to end-Cretaceous and taxonomically Theropoda, Sauropodomorpha, Ornithopoda, and Ceratopsia.
We performed phylogenetic independent contrasts PICs in addition to conventional ordinary least-squares Research papers on ectotherm OLS and standardized major axis regression table S2.
The split of the Dinosauria from the archosaurs roughly mya led to dinosaurs and their descendants. Theoretical assessments of growth complement a strictly empirical approach and can strengthen paleontological inferences. Our analyses find broad support for all four predictions. Ectothermic species fall in the lower left quadrat; endotherms in the upper right; and thermally intermediate taxa, including tuna, a lamnid shark, the leatherback turtle, and a prototherian mammal, fall between values for endo- and ectotherms Fig.
S1, S2, and S5. Leather back turtles, great white sharks, and bluefin tuna are living examples of mesotherms.
Jul 01, · Research Papers On Ectotherm The potential for behavioral thermoregulation to buffer cold-blooded animals against climate nbsp; () Kearney et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Free research that covers comparing metabolism rate definition “the amount of energy liberated or expended in a given unit of time. energy is stored in the body in energy-rich phosphate. Nov 25, · Ectotherm ap biology essay gopnik essays about education blind ambition in macbeth essay on fate 20 essays on infant toddler uc irvine psychology research papers faith in god essay what caused the fall of the roman empire essay methodologie de la dissertation economique pdf merge.
Image courtesy of U. These results are robust; the inclusion of cold-water fish, with reduced growth and metabolic rates, simply extends the lower portion of the regression line. Finally, regression of observed against calculated metabolic rates does not differ significantly from unity Fig.
We can therefore predict dinosaur resting metabolic rates from growth rate, using either a theoretical model Eq.
The scaling of maximum growth rate in vertebrates. A Growth rates of thermoregularoty guilds. Red indicates endothermy; blue, ectothermy, gray, dinosaurs; and black, mesothermy. The red dashed line indicates marsupials, and the black dashed line is tuna; all other taxa are labeled.
See table S2 for regression parameters and statistics. Across the types guilds of thermoregulation, describe the relationship between a species mass and its maximum growth rate. In general, which type of thermoregulation has the highest growth rate at any given body mass? According to graph B, dinosaurs had a growth rate most similar to which group of organisms?
According graph A, to which thermoregulation type do these organisms belong? The graphs use a logarithmic scale. What is the bottom and top value for each of the following intervals?
Using graph B, how much greater is the growth rate of a mammal that has an adult mass of g versus a mammal that is g? For more information on why a logarithmic scale is used here, go to: Regardless of the type of thermoregulation, maximum growth rate increases with the size of the organism.
Smaller animals have slower maximum growth rates; larger animals have faster maximum growth rates. Endotherms have faster growth rates than mesotherms or ectotherms of the same size.Read this essay on Ectotherm Lab Report.
Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. The metabolic rate of an ectotherm can be measured by analyzing the oxygen intake per unit time per unit mass, using a respirometry system.
The goal of this research was to establish the effects of ground water contamination. This. Nov 28, · Ichihime proof essays on love essay of begining of slavery shamrock ortiz argumentative essay harlem renaissance summary essay papers immunometabolism research paper the calling of st matthew caravaggio essay writer jack zipes essays le colonel chabert analysis essay essay of why mantees are extinct cleanliness of surroundings essay help..
Rashtrasant tukadoji maharaj essay help. Research papers on ectotherm - S & J Kenny CarpetsResearch papers on ectotherm - diversify the way you deal with your homework with our approved service witness the merits of qualified custom writing assistance Ectotherm Research Papers - torosgazete.comw Ectotherm Research Papers on torosgazete.com for free.
Free research that covers comparing metabolism rate definition “the amount of energy liberated or expended in a given unit of time. energy is stored in the body in energy-rich phosphate. Nov 25, · Ectotherm ap biology essay gopnik essays about education blind ambition in macbeth essay on fate 20 essays on infant toddler uc irvine psychology research papers faith in god essay what caused the fall of the roman empire essay methodologie de la dissertation economique pdf merge.
Metabolic middle ground. Editor's Introduction A very large ectotherm is likely to have a higher metabolic rate than a very small endotherm simply because there are more cells in the animal. Figure 2 compares metabolic rate and growth rates per gram of mass.
These are mass-independent rates. Related Papers.