Definitions[ edit ] Firefighters at work The Oxford English Dictionary cites the earliest use of the word in English in the spelling of risque from its from French original, 'risque' as ofand the spelling as risk from It defines risk as: Exposure to the possibility of loss, injury, or other adverse or unwelcome circumstance; a chance or situation involving such a possibility. This definition, using project terminology, is easily made universal by removing references to projects.
Sara McLanahan Summer Children of single-parent families suffer measurable harm. But the problems of the family are far more complex than the popular debate often suggests. PinIt Instapaper Pocket Email Print Inwhen Dan Quayle condemned the television character Murphy Brown for giving birth out of wedlock, he reopened an old debate that quickly became highly polarized.
Some people claimed that growing up in a fatherless home was the major cause of child poverty, delinquency, and school failure, while others denied that single motherhood had any harmful effects. And some objected even to discussing the topic for fear of stigmatizing single mothers and their children.
Not talking about single motherhood is scarcely an option. More than half of the children born in will spend some or all of their childhood with only one parent, typically their mother.
If current patterns hold, they will likely experience higher rates of poverty, school failure, and other problems as they grow up. The long-range consequences could have enormous implications.
But what exactly are the consequences -- how large and concentrated among what groups?
EY provides advisory, assurance, tax and transaction services to help you retain the confidence of investors, manage your risk, strengthen your controls and achieve your potential. Actuarial Standard of Practice No. Assessment and Disclosure of Risk Associated with Measuring Pension Obligations and Determining Pension Plan Contributions STANDARD OF PRACTICE. TRANSMITTAL MEMORANDUM. September TO: Members of Actuarial Organizations Governed by the Standards of Practice of the Actuarial Standards Board and Other Persons Interested in the . Comprehensive and meticulously documented facts about the national debt. Learn about various measures of the national debt, contributing factors, consequences, and more.
Do they depend on whether a single mother is widowed, divorced, or never married? Does public support for single mothers inadvertently increase the number of women who get divorced or choose to have a baby on their own? Many people hold strong opinions about these issues.
For example, conservatives such as former Education Secretary William Bennett and Charles Murray, the author of Losing Ground, believe that single motherhood is so harmful and public support is so significant an inducement for unwed women to have babies that it is time to get tough with the mothers.
Murray has even proposed denying unwed mothers child support payments from nonresident fathers. In Murray's eyes, the mothers are fully responsible for any children they bear in an age when contraceptives and abortion are freely available.
Of the father Murray says: As far as I can tell, he has approximately the same causal responsibility as a slice of chocolate cake has in determining whether a woman gains weight.
Meanwhile, some liberal critics see single mother as a codeword for "black, welfare mother. And then there are the feminists who regard Quayle's attack on Murphy Brown as a symbolic attack on the moral right of women to pursue careers and raise children on their own.
So great are the passions aroused by the debate over the morality of single motherhood that a clear-eyed view of the consequences of single motherhood has been difficult. But to make any progress, we had best know what those are.
Does Single Motherhood Harm Children? Children who grow up with only one of their biological parents nearly always the mother are disadvantaged across a broad array of outcomes.
As shown in figure 1they are twice as likely to drop out of high school, 2. Children in one-parent families also have lower grade point averages, lower college aspirations, and poorer attendance records.
As adults, they have higher rates of divorce. These patterns persist even after adjusting for differences in race, parents' education, number of siblings, and residential location. The evidence, however, does not show that family disruption is the principal cause of high school failure, poverty, and delinquency.
While 19 percent of all children drop out of high school, the dropout rate for children in two-parent families is 13 percent. Thus, the dropout rate would be only 33 percent lower if all families had two parents and the children currently living with a single parent had the same dropout rates as children living with two parents -- a highly improbable assumption.
The story is basically the same for the other measures of child well-being. If all children lived in two-parent families, teen motherhood and idleness would be less common, but the bulk of these problems would remain.
The consequences of family disruption are not necessarily the same in all kinds of families. Some might suppose family disruption to have a larger effect on black and Hispanic children since on average they come from less advantaged backgrounds and their underlying risk of dropping out, becoming a teen mother, and being out of work is greater than that of whites.
Alternatively, others might expect the effect of family disruption to be smaller on minority children because single mothers in black and Hispanic communities are more common, more widely accepted, and therefore perhaps provided more support from neighbors and kin.The Consequences of Being Uninsured AUGUST he Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of (ACA) has increased access to Children are particularly vulnerable to the medical consequences associated with not economic losses These increases are sometimes called a “hidden health tax.” Consequences for the Health System and.
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Jul 12, · The World Economic Forum’s Risk Response Network. Global Risks , Sixth Edition is a flagship product of the World Economic Forum’s new Risk Response Network (RRN).. The RRN is a unique platform for global decision-makers to better understand, manage and respond to complex and interdependent risks.
RE: Tax consequences and other risk factors associated with mining operations I. FACTS ABC Mining Company, Inc.
is a publically traded, large domestic mining company with over plants in . Risk is the possibility of losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned).Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.