Yale University Press, Book Two authors Ellis, Doris et.
Overhead projectors When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and bottom margin.
Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as traditional TV sets, namely 4: Identification cards ISO specifies three formats for identification cards: In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and aesthetic advantages of the sqrt 2 aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time.
There are also suggestions that the task to find a paper format that is similar to itself after being cut in half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as The French format series never became widely known and was quickly forgotten again.
For those interested in historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, — It finally became both an international standard ISO as well as the official United Nations document format in and it is today used in almost all countries on this planet, with the exception of North America.
Ina large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in their incoming mail and concluded that out of examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then.
While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two.
The Golden Ratio, on the other hand, preserves the aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics.
Hints for North American paper users The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the only industrialized nations in which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used.
Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale e. As a result, internationally operating U.
Letter format, and in particular its rationale, seem rather obscure. The earliest documented attempts to standardize U. Onthe U. Independent of that, on a Committee on the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Standards.
What became later known as the U. Letter format is just the first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for the origin of this format series is that it was derived from a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper.
It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to existing production equipment.
The Canadian standard CAN These are just the U. This Canadian standard was introduced ineven though the Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the U.
Some magazines and other print products that have to be printed economically on both A4 and U. Letter presses use the PA4 format today. Similarly, the A—E formats can be replaced by A4—A0.
It can be hoped and expected that with the continuing introduction of the metric system in the United Statesthe ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. Conversion to A4 as the common business letter and document format in North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.
Users of photocopiers outside the U. When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there.
The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U. Based on the experience from the introduction of ISO paper formats in other industrialized countries at various points during the 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to be initiated by a political decision to move all government operation to the new paper format system.
History shows that the commercial world then gradually and smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 10—15 years.MIDTERM LITERARY ANALYSIS PAPERS - Successful Student Examples: English - Introduction to Literature: Fiction World Literature Criticism Supplement, Vol Gale Literature Resource Center wants the woman to be free of the paper but does not want to let her go, because the woman is what keeps her focused and sane: "I don't want to.
This research paper is an investigation of the flu pandemic that caused more fatalities than the total number of people killed in the First World War. The first section discusses historical background of the Spanish flu followed by an investigation of mortality and morbidity patterns of the flu pandemic.
More american literature essay samples, literature essay samples Andersen, Allegories and “The Toad” – Essay Sample Hans Christian Andersen, internationally celebrated writer and poet, started off life in the small town of Odense on the island of Fyn in Denmark (Garfield 2).
Students will learn to organize and format their ideas before writing an essay or research paper with our helpful samples of outlines. sentences, and a conclusion. Outlines are provided for a variety of essay types, and a sample outline for a research paper is included as an added bonus.
Subjects: Reading and Literature (3,) Writing. Research paper topics on English literature The importance of English literature is known to all of us; writing a research paper on English literature requires significant effort to research about various aspects of the language and considerable amount of time has to be spent on reading.
These are like buzzwords for whoever will be marking your paper, it shows you understand what literary features are, an important aspect of the course. E.g. 'the author uses the weather to convey a sense of confinement because the sun is used to highlight the barbed wire and prison bars ' (that's just a quick example, you need to quote and be specific, don't ever be vague).