Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership.
Modern Chinese character ri meaning "day" or "Sun" A logogram is a single written character which represents a complete grammatical word. Most traditional Chinese characters are classified as logograms. As each character represents a single word or, more precisely, a morphememany logograms are required to write all the words of language.
The vast array of logograms and the memorization of what they mean are major disadvantages of logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, since the meaning is inherent to the symbol, the same logographic system can theoretically be used to represent different languages.
In practice, the ability to communicate across languages only works for the closely related varieties of Chineseas differences in syntax reduce the crosslinguistic portability of a given logographic system.
Japanese uses Chinese logograms extensively in its writing systems, with most of the symbols carrying the same or similar meanings. However, the grammatical differences between Japanese and Chinese are significant enough that a long Chinese text is not readily understandable to a Japanese reader without any knowledge of basic Chinese grammarthough short and concise phrases such as those on signs and newspaper headlines are much easier to comprehend.
While most languages do not use wholly logographic writing systems, many languages use some logograms. A good example of modern western logograms are the Hindu-Arabic numerals: Logograms are sometimes called ideogramsa word that refers to symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas, but linguists avoid this use, as Chinese characters are often semantic — phonetic compounds, symbols which include writing arabic left handed element that represents the meaning and a phonetic complement element that represents the pronunciation.
Some nonlinguists distinguish between lexigraphy and ideography, where symbols in lexigraphies represent words and symbols in ideographies represent words or morphemes. The most important and, to a degree, the only surviving modern logographic writing system is the Chinese one, whose characters have been used with varying degrees of modification in varieties of ChineseJapaneseKoreanVietnameseand other east Asian languages.
Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Mayan writing system are also systems with certain logographic features, although they have marked phonetic features as well and are no longer in current use. Vietnamese speakers switched to the Latin alphabet in the 20th century and the use of Chinese characters in Korean is increasingly rare.
The Japanese writing system includes several distinct forms of writing including logography. As logographic writing systems use a single symbol for an entire word, a syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent or approximate syllableswhich make up words.
A symbol in a syllabary typically represents a consonant sound followed by a vowel sound, or just a vowel alone.
In a "true syllabary", there is no systematic graphic similarity between phonetically related characters though some do have graphic similarity for the vowels.
More recent creations such as the Cree syllabary embody a system of varying signs, which can best be seen when arranging the syllabogram set in an onset — coda or onset— rime table. Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese.
The English languageon the other hand, allows complex syllable structures, with a relatively large inventory of vowels and complex consonant clustersmaking it cumbersome to write English words with a syllabary.
To write English using a syllabary, every possible syllable in English would have to have a separate symbol, and whereas the number of possible syllables in Japanese is aroundin English there are approximately 15, to 16, However, syllabaries with much larger inventories do exist.
The Yi scriptfor example, contains different symbols or 1, if symbols with a particular tone diacritic are counted as separate syllables, as in Unicode. The Chinese scriptwhen used to write Middle Chinese and the modern varieties of Chinesealso represents syllables, and includes separate glyphs for nearly all of the many thousands of syllables in Middle Chinese ; however, because it primarily represents morphemes and includes different characters to represent homophonous morphemes with different meanings, it is normally considered a logographic script rather than a syllabary.
Several languages of the Ancient Near East used forms of cuneiformwhich is a syllabary with some non-syllabic elements.
Alphabets[ edit ] Main article: Alphabet An alphabet is a small set of letters basic written symbolseach of which roughly represents or represented historically a phoneme of a spoken language. The word alphabet is derived from alpha and betathe first two symbols of the Greek alphabet. The first type of alphabet that was developed was the abjad.
An abjad is an alphabetic writing system where there is one symbol per consonant. Abjads differ from other alphabets in that they have characters only for consonantal sounds.May 10, · NOTE: If your driver education and driver training were taken in a state other than California, DMV will accept either a "To Secondary Schools Other Than California Schools" form (DL 33) form completed by the out-of-state secondary torosgazete.com a DL 33 form from your local DMV office or by calling DMV at Send the DL 33 form to your out-of-state secondary school to .
Native American tradition combined with scientific decoding methods indicate that "rock art" is really a sophisticated form of writing. The life-long research into Native American petroglyphs by LaVan Martineau, an orphan adopted into the Paiute tribe of southeastern Nevada and southwestern Utah, has resulted in detailed interpretations of the rock writings.
May 07, · Hi all! My question specifically deals with languages written from right to left (like Hebrew and Arabic). Is it more desirable to be left-handed.
Literature: Literature, a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre.
Complete contents the Jewish Encyclopedia. Preponderance of Males. Most noticeable is the great preponderance of males over females; indeed, this is one of the most serious problems confronting the Samaritans at the present time.
Left-handed people who speak Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Hebrew or any other right-to-left script do not have the same difficulties with writing.
The right-to-left nature of these languages prevents left-handers from running their hand on the ink as happens with left-to-right languages.